Monthly Archives: September 2011

ACET Standard 1: Design

Standard 1: DESIGN


Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design,


instructional strategies, and learner characteristics.


Supporting Explanations:


“Design is the process of specifying conditions for learning” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 30). The domain of design includes four sub-domains of theory and practice:


Instructional Systems Design (ISD), Message Design, Instructional Strategies, and Learner Characteristics.


1.1 Instructional Systems Design (ISD)


“Instructional Systems Design (ISD) is an organized procedure that includes the steps of analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating instruction”(

Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). Within the application of this definition, ‘design’ is interpreted at both a macro- and micro-level in that it describes the systems approach and is a step within the systems approach. The importance of process, as opposed to product, is emphasized in ISD.


1.1.1 Analyzing: process of defining what is to be learned and the context in which it is to be learned.


1.1.2 Designing: process of specifying how it is to be learned.


1.1.3 Developing: process of authoring and producing the instructional materials.


1.1.4 Implementing: actually using the materials and strategies in context.


1.1.5 Evaluating: process of determining the adequacy of the instruction.


1.2 Message Design


“Message design involves planning for the manipulation of the physical form of the message”

(Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). Message design is embedded within learning theories (cognitive, psychomotor, behavioral, perceptual, affective, constructivist) in the


application of known principles of attention, perception, and retention which are intended to communicate with the learner. This sub-domain is specific to both the medium selected and the learning task.


1.3 Instructional Strategies


“Instructional strategies are specifications for selecting and sequencing events and activities within a lesson” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). In practice, instructional

strategies interact with learning situations. The results of these interactions are often described by instructional models. The appropriate selection of instructional strategies


and instructional models depends upon the learning situation (including learner characteristics), the nature of the content, and the type of learner objective.


1.4 Learner Characteristics


“Learner characteristics are those facets of the learner’s experiential background that impact the effectiveness of a learning process” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 32). Learner

characteristics impact specific components of instruction during the selection and implementation of instructional strategies. For example, motivation research influences


the selection and implementation of instructional strategies based upon identified learner characteristics. Learner characteristics interact with instructional strategies, the learning situation, and the nature of the content.


Performances Indicative of the Design Standard


Select candidate performances which are applicable to your program. The following indicators are examples of performances related to the design standard. You may wish to identify additional performance indicators related to your program.


1.1 Instructional Systems Design


1.1.a Utilize and implement design principles which specify optimal conditions for learning.


1.1.b Identify a variety of instructional systems design models and apply at least one model.


1.1.c Identify learning theories from which each model is derived and the consequent implications.


1.1.1 Analyzing


1.1.1.a Write appropriate objectives for specific content and outcome levels.


1.1.1.b Analyze instructional tasks, content, and context.


1.1.1.c Categorize objectives using an appropriate schema or taxonomy.


1.1.1.d Compare and contrast curriculum objectives for their area(s) of preparation with federal, state, and/or professional content standards.


1.1.2 Designing


1.1.2.a Create a plan for a topic of a content area (e.g., a thematic unit, a text chapter, an interdisciplinary unit) to demonstrate application of the principles of macro-level design.


1.1.2.b Create instructional plans (micro-level design) that address the needs of all learners, including appropriate accommodations for learners with special needs.


1.1.2.c* Integrate information literacy skills into classroom and media center instruction.


1.1.2.d Incorporate contemporary instructional technology processes in the development of interactive lessons that promote student learning.


1.1.2.e* Collaborate with teachers on subject-area curriculum teams to ensure that


information literacy standards are integrated within the curriculum.


1.1.3 Developing


1.1.3.a Produce instructional materials which require the use of multiple media (e.g., computers, video, projection).


1.1.3.b Demonstrate personal skill development with at least one: computer authoring application, video tool, or electronic communication application.


1.1.4 Implementing


1.1.4.a Use instructional plans and materials which they have produced in contextualized instructional settings (e.g., practica, field experiences, training) that address the needs of all learners, including appropriate accommodations for learners with special needs.


1.1.4.b* Establish a well-organized and professionally managed school media collection based on the principles of cataloging and classification of library media center resources.


1.1.4.c* Organize materials based on the AACR2, MARC, Library of Congress, Sears and other systems as appropriate for the cataloging and classification of school media


center resources for efficient access and retrieval by the students, teachers, administrators and community members.


1.1.4.d* Organize, classify, and maintain bibliographic records within the media center to ensure efficient access to resources for students and teachers.


1.1.5 Evaluating


1.1.5.a Utilize a variety of assessment measures to determine the adequacy of learning and instruction.


1.1.5.b Demonstrate the use of formative and summative evaluation within practice and contextualized field experiences.


1.1.5.c Demonstrate congruency among goals/objectives, instructional strategies, and assessment measures.


1.2 Message Design


1.2.a Apply principles of educational psychology, communications theory, and visual literacy to the selection of media for macro- and micro-level design of instruction.


1.2.b Apply principles of educational psychology, communications theory, and visual literacy to the development of instructional messages specific to the learning task.


1.2.c Understand, recognize and apply basic principles of message design in the development of a variety of communications with their learners.


1.3 Instructional Strategies


1.3.a Select instructional strategies appropriate for a variety of learner characteristics and learning situations.


1.3.b Identify at least one instructional model and demonstrate appropriate contextualized application within practice and field experiences.


1.3.c Analyze their selection of instructional strategies and/or models as influenced by the learning situation, nature of the specific content, and type of learner objective.


1.3.d Select motivational strategies appropriate for the target learners, task, and learning situation.


1.4 Learner Characteristics


1.4.a Identify a broad range of observed and hypothetical learner characteristics for their particular area(s) of preparation.


1.4.b Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the selection of instructional strategies.


1.4.c Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the implementation of instructional strategies.


1.4.d* Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the selection of instructional strategies and resources within the media center.


1.4.e* Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the implementation of instructional strategies and resources within the media center.

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Posted by on September 12, 2011 in Standard 1: Design


Elements of Educational Technology

The current definition of Educational Technology from AECT is Instructional Technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. … The words Instructional Technology in the definition mean a discipline devoted to techniques or ways to make learning more efficient based on theory but theory in its broadest sense, not just scientific theory. … Theory consists of concepts, constructs, principles, and propositions that serve as the body of knowledge. Practice is the application of that knowledge to solve problems. Practice can also contribute to the knowledge base through information gained from experience. … Of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation … refer to both areas of the knowledge base and to functions performed by professionals in the field. … Processes are a series of operations or activities directed towards a particular result. … Resources are sources of support for learning, including support systems and instructional materials and environments. … The purpose of instructional technology is to affect and effect learning (Seels & Richey, 1994, pp. 1-9).

Educational technology has certainly changed much since Resior wrote his article.  There are many elements to educational technology or instructional technology as some call it.  The one element I am going to focus on is “using”.  I think that the element using is what separates educational technology from instructional media.  We have all watched a video in Biology or in History that was supposed to give us a better understanding.  When we “watched” the video, most of us slept or drew on paper or found ways to communicate with our friends across the room.  Just watching the video is not using educational technology.  Using technology, to me, means that the student is an active participant and is helping create the learning by doing something.  Whether you have the student go on a virtual field trip into that history lesson, or actually venture into the human body and become that breath of air or that piece of food that is eaten, those are examples of using educational technology.   In math there are programs that the students can go online and use.  I was able to use some various sites to help students learn and better understand geometry.  Actually having them in the computer lab and creating their own triangles and shapes and then seeing what happens to the sides and angles as you change one aspect, taught them more than they could have ever learned from just watching me do example after example. 

Reisor talked a lot about how different fads of technology would create excitement and encouragement but then the fad would fade.  A lot of that has to do with teachers refusing to use the technology or maybe even a lack of training in how to correctly use the technology to really be educational and beneficial.  You can see that even now.  When SMART boards came out, they were exciting and new and going to change the way teachers teach.  But, most teachers don’t have one in their room and if they have one they don’t know how to use it so it just hangs there.   I had a SMART board put in my room but no one showed me how to use it and so it just sat there, never being used.  The goal in Educational Technology is not only to have the tool out there but to have teachers and students actually use the tool for education and learning.  In the last couple of years there has been a major jump from minimal educational technology being used to growing fast and trying to keep up with the demand.  As long as teachers and students get training in how to correctly use the tools for education then the Educational Technology with truly help in learning and in the educational field.  I think that we are finally starting to use educational technology (instructional Technology) the way that AECT first intended it to.  We are slowly working towards it but we are moving forward and more and more teachers and educational institutions are willing to use it.


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Posted by on September 6, 2011 in Other